Browsing history with sensitive data are stored in next files (some of these files are used to be locked when Google Chrome browser is active, and could stay locked even if Continue running background apps when Google Chrome is closed switch is on in settings):
SQLite databases (and related *-journal files):
Network Action Predictor
Origin Bound Certs
Files in unknown format with SNSS file signature, cf. src/chrome/browser/sessions/session_backend.cc
Files in unknown format:
History Provider Cache
The README file contains next caveat: Google Chrome settings and storage represent user-selected preferences and information and MUST not be extracted, overwritten or modified except through Google Chrome defined APIs.